Psoriasis is a noncommunicable disease that affects the skin and its appendages: hair, nail plate. The external manifestations are a rash and peeling of the skin, therefore is the other name of the disease of psoriasis. It is characterized by the alternation of periods of exacerbation with periods of relative stability or remission. From the beginning of diseases not caused by microorganisms, it is not contagious in nature and is not contagious. Medical statistics says that this disease affects approximately 3-4% of the population. Psoriasis can occur in people of all ages, but "prefer" young: more than 70% of patients, it is found in the age group 18-23 years.
Why do I get psoriasis?
Psoriasis is an abnormal reaction of the organism to external stimuli, which in some parts of the body, is fast withering away of the top layer of the skin. The normal duration of the cycle and the subsequent maturation of the cells is about 21-28 days, in the case of psoriasis, the period is reduced to 3-5 days. Today, most experts are inclined to believe, psoriasis is a multifactorial disease of genetic etiology.
There are several theories about the origin of the disease. The first is that there are two types of lichen:
- the first is due to the poor functioning of the immune system that affects the skin and is hereditary, arising from my youth;
- the second makes itself felt after the age of 40, affects, joints, nails, is not genetically determined and is associated with impairment of the immune defense.
Proponents of this theory claim that it is the only factor that contributes to the development of psoriasis have immune system disorder, caused by various factors:
- infectious diseases;
- poor diet;
- cold climatic conditions;
- the abuse of alcohol.
According to this theory psoriasis is a systemic disease and can affect internal organs, joints and other tissues. With the defeat of the joints, the so-called development of psoriatic arthritis, which suffer from the small joints of the hands, the feet.
The emergence of disease is favored by the following factors:
- dry and thin skin;
- in constant contact with chemicals that irritate: household cleaning products, alcohol solutions, cosmetics;
- excessive hygiene, which lead to the disruption of the natural protective barrier of the skin;
- Smoking, consumption of drugs or alcohol contribute to the deterioration of the blood supply and nutrition to the skin);
- taking certain medications;
- fungal and bacterial infections;
- change the climate in the region;
- consumption of spicy, acidic food, chocolate;
- allergic States;
The classification of diseases
Starts as psoriasis, how it expresses, what is its effect on the body – all of these moments, which are determined by the specific pathology. Today there are several classifications of the disease. One of the most common parts of the psoriasis in two groups:
Nepustuleznaya (or simple) form is characterized by a stable course of chronic pathology. This group is, and erythrodermic psoriasis, the main symptom, which is the defeat the greater part of the skin.
pustular variety includes:
- de annularis pustules;
- psoriasis Barbera;
- psoriasis background Tsimbusha;
- psoriasis in palms and soles.
A separate category are:
- the drug causes the form;
- psoriasis Napkina;
- "inverse psoriasis" (develops in the flexor surfaces).
Depending on the localization of the pathological process and characteristics of the first symptoms of psoriasis are:
- psoriasis of the scalp;
- psoriasis the skin;
- the knee;
- nails (onychodystrophy);
- tears-a form;
- psoriatic arthritis;
- psoriatic erythroderma.
Psoriasis — a systemic pathology, in addition to distribution on the skin and nails can affect the spine, joints, tendons, immune, endocrine, nervous system. Often there is a loss of the liver, kidneys, thyroid gland.
First symptoms of psoriasis most often are:
- feel chronic fatigue;
- depressed or depression.
Because of the complex impact of the pathology on the body of experts, who are more inclined to talk about psoriatic disease.
And yet the main clinic, associated with damage to certain areas of the skin. One of the first manifestations is the appearance of the covered with psoriatic plates (scales), rounded papules bright red or pink. Their feature is the symmetrical location on the scalp, flexor surfaces, the lower back, less to the genital mucosa. The size of the papules in the early stages is a few millimeters and may continue up to 10 and more see the Characteristic rash becomes the basis for the separation of the disease into the following types:
- the point at which the elements smaller than a pinhead;
- tears – papules resemble a tear and suit the size of lenticulae cremore seeds;
- coin – plaque with rounded edges to reach the 5 mm in diameter.
Sometimes the rash is curved in the form of rings or garlands, place cards with irregular edges.
The top layer of the papules are easily receding scaly plaques, which is formed by the stratum corneum epidermis. First, scales are formed in the Central part of the plate, gradually spreading to the edges. Lightweight, loose-fitting phenomenon due to the presence of dead cells filled with air gaps. Sometimes around the elements, forming a pink ring that represents the area of growth plates and the spreading of inflammation. The surrounding skin remains unchanged.
When you delete the RAID showed a shiny surface is bright red in colour, which is formed by the capillaries with a lot attenuatum walls, the top covered with a very thin film. The capillaries are detected due to a disturbance in the normal structure of the top layer of the skin and its dramatic thinning. Changes in the structure of the skin, which appears as a result of incomplete maturation of keratinocytes cells, which leads to the inability of their normal differentiation.
Psoriasis of the scalp
The main symptom of psoriasis on the scalp the appearance is prominently elevated above the surrounding skin psoriatic panels. Are fully covered reminiscent of dandruff flakes. This is the hair, which are not included in the pathological process. Located within the hair area of the rash can spread over the smooth skin, the neck, behind the ears. This process due to the rapid division of keratinocytes in the affected area.
Symptoms of psoriasis on the palms and soles
This form of lichen causes significant thickening of the Horny layer of the skin on these pages. The skin becomes rough and covered with cracks. The reason for this is the intense cell division (their rate of reproduction up to 8-fold higher than normal) and keep on the surface. In the early phase of the skin pustules are designed with the content which are at first transparent, but gradually become white. The time of occurrence of dark scars. In most cases the disease is manifested both on the feet and hands, but sometimes the panels appear only in one area. When the distribution process on the back of the hand, we are talking about another form of psoriasis (not the Palmar-plantar).
Symptoms of psoriasis of the nail
What is nail psoriasis? For this type of disease is characterized by the various symptoms. Observed mainly two types of destruction of documents:
- type a thimble, in which the nail is covered with small holes resembling needle marks needle;
- the type of onychomycosis, the affected tissue, reminiscent of nail fungus: nails change colour, noticeably thicken and flake off. Through the plate can be recognized, which is surrounded by a reddish rim psoriatic papula, which resembles oil stains.
The dependence of the symptoms of the stage of the disease
Symptoms of psoriasis vary depending on the particular season and stage. Many patients have experienced "winter" variety of the disease, where periods of deterioration there in the late autumn or winter. In the warm season due to the intensity of the ultraviolet light comes to refinement. "Summer" is quite rare. In pathology, there are three phases:
- Progressive, in which there are always new elements, which is the active growth of the existing plates, the presence around them pink zones, severe flaking, itching.
- In the stationary – growth of papules stops, new lesions are not formed, are visible small creases on the top layer of the skin around the panels.
- retrogressive – the peeling away, the panels begin to disappear, and are in the process of the reduction of the disease in their place are areas of increased pigmentation.
Symptoms of psoriasis in children
Symptoms of psoriasis in children are some of the differences, especially in infants. The first signs are not typical. In the skin folds appears demarcated area of redness, accompanied by maceration and progressive ita decorticavit on the stratum corneum (starting with the surroundings). Externally, it resembles eczematid, diaper rash or Candida. Have younger children, the rashes continue to appear in, which are not typical for psoriasis of the city (on the skin, the lining of the genital system, in the natural skin folds). Very often, the lesions first developed on the head, under the hair. Here are the accumulated crust, on the basis of the moderate islamists. Another common site of localization of the rash are the skin is exposed to constant friction of the clothing or aggressive medicines.
Formed on the body of the papule gradually coalesce in plates with irregular outlines. Their sizes can range from cremore lenticulae grain in children's hands. With tears in the form of papular elements are of small dimensions. They appear suddenly, quickly covering the body, face, neck, scalp and extensoris indicis region of the hands and feet.
Psoriasis in children has a long and persistent course. The only exception is the keyhole type, which is characterized by more mild with long periods of remission. As in the case of adults, in the development of the disease distinguish three stages or phases.
- At progressive, there are small pruritic papules with a rim of the peripheral growth of the red. Feature of the symptomatology in its infancy, is the weak point of bleeding severity, a terminal of the film and the phenomenon stearin spot. Kids grow and thicken the lymph nodes sometimes become painful (especially if exudative erythroderma and psoriasis).
- During the transition to the stationary phase of the peripheral growth stops, the flattening of the infiltration in the center of the plaque and reduce the scaling.
- The regressive phase is characterized by resorption of injuries. Sometimes about yourself, you'll notice the characteristic depigmented ring. In the premises of the former rash lose pigment or, on the contrary, to undergo hyperpigmentation. The lymph nodes become soft and reduced in size.
Diffuse lesions are observed on the palms and soles of the feet of the child. There are also cracks and the infiltration of the skin. In the case of the common forms of dermatosis affects the nails: they formed a point indentation or longitudinal furrows. Severe psoriasis causes deformation of the nails.
Pustular psoriasis is rare in children. It can occur in the elderly. This disease is characterized by severe course, with a noticeable deterioration and temperature rise.
arthropathic variety of children does not occur. In rare cases, young patients indicate the presence of pain.