Psoriasis ─ skin disease that is chronic. Expressed in the appearance of the skin, swollen spots (papules), which is a bright red color. As this disease is very common, each is useful to know what appears psoriasis, what are its symptoms and methods of treatment. These important questions devoted to art.
Causes of psoriasis
Modern medicine considers psoriasis as a systemic failure in the body, and not as a separate disease. In addition to the skin rash in patients with a diagnosis of disorders of other organs, which often affect the endocrine and the nervous and immune system.
One answer to the question why psoriasis occurs, science does not have. There are several major theories, which adhere to the doctors. Let's look at them.
The immune theory
Recognized by many doctors theory is that the main reason for the development of psoriasis ─ dysfunction of the immune system. Papules that occur on the body is due to autoimmune aggression due to problems in the functioning of the immune system, healthy skin cells as foreign and therefore rejects them.
This is already a long-established ─ psoriasis often develops on the basis of infectious diseases (sinusitis, tonsillitis). This is a strong argument in favor of the fact that dysfunction of the immune system and cause disease. Explore the scales, papules, researchers have found that in their composition are antigenic complexes that are not typical for healthy cells. Blood contains antigens to these complexes, which provoke the rejection.
Less resistance, without a doubt, the trigger for the development of psoriasis. However, it is important to take into account many other factors.
The tendency to psoriasis is inherited. Not a disease, namely, predisposition. This confirms statistically the fact ─ from 55-60% of people who suffer from psoriasis have blood relatives with the same diagnosis. When it hurts one of the parents, the likelihood that the child will have this disease ─ 25%, if both parents ─ the risk increases to 75%. It has been shown that the occurrence of diseases that directly affect the plot of the chromosomes, which determines the level of inflammatory reactions of the skin. However, a genetic predisposition doctors do not believe that is the main cause of the disease.
In some cultures it is resistance to psoriasis. This category includes Indians living in the Andes, the Eskimos. Their representatives are a set of genetic characteristics, so that you never suffer from this disease.
The endocrine theory
In accordance with the endocrine theory of the emergence of psoriasis caused by hormonal disorders. To such the opinion of the doctors who came after the analysis of the characteristics of the disease. In their opinion, the excessive production of skin cells - the result of violations of regulatory functions, caused by disorders of the endocrine system.
In favour of the endocrine theory is based on the fact that during hormonal surges in women (ovulation, menstruation) and during pregnancy manifested by psoriasis is much more active. However, scientists did not realize that it is a hormone that has a direct impact on the emergence and course of psoriasis, therefore, this theory is not considered to be fundamental.
One of the new theories ─ neurogenic. She claims that the psoriasis ─ diseases of the nerves, and this is the psychological reasons. Cause the development of neurosis (vasomotor). This leads to narrowing of the blood vessels, reducing blood flow to the skin and the formation of papules.
Studies show that strong emotions, stress, nerves stimulate the formation and development of skin rashes. This is the main proof of the neurogenic theory.
The viral theory
Some doctors are of the opinion that psoriasis develops due to infection. Namely, in the period of infectious diseases papules occur more frequently, are changes in the lymph nodes (peripheral). But this is probably due to the immune impairment of the body. In the history of the study of the disease was not identified the virus, which triggers development of psoriasis.
The doctors never found cases of contact infection of this disease (even after a blood transfusion from a healthy person is infected). Therefore, the virus arouses a lot of doubt. In modern medicine psoriasis is defined as not a contagious disease.
In psoriasis, many patients with a diagnosis of reduced temperature and increased concentration of cholesterol levels and signs of metabolic disorders. Still it is a violation of exchange of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates. This showed that in the result of the medical examination of patients who suffer from psoriasis, and gave reason to believe that the metabolic irregularities that lead to the development of the disease.
The factors that trigger the emergence of psoriasis
In order to understand how and why psoriasis occurs, it is necessary to emphasize a number of factors, which with great probability, that the cause for its development. These include:
- Negative emotions, stress, injury, physical and emotional exhaustion, which are often the cause of the papules, relapse of disease.
- Infectious diseases, chronic foci of infection, vaccination.
- Hormonal changes especially in women during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, menopause.
- Physical damage to the skin, burns, stings, frostbite, scratches.
- Some medications-antibiotics, vitamin, which is rich in vitamins A, b, C, Immunostimulants, herbs.
- Improper diet ─ excessive amounts in the diet of sweet, fatty, fried, alcohol.
- Climate change ─ especially harmful for people who are prone to psoriasis, the region with a damp climate, rapid changes in temperature.
- The presence of other dermatological diseases such as dermatitis, a fungal disease.
The reason for the development of psoriasis can be one of these factors. For people who have suffered from these diseases, is to limit their impact on the reduction of risk for recurrence.
Symptoms of psoriasis – appears as
The risk for psoriasis, is absolutely at any age. This is, kids (even babies), and elderly people. The earlier the disease develops, the more the current shape it is.
The first signs of psoriasis:
- the formation of surface cracks in the skin, rash (pustular);
- delamination of the nail plate;
- the bubbles on the palms of the hands and feet;
- the rapid cell death of the skin, strong peeling;
- education on the skin papules ─ convex red spots that itch and are covered with white scales.
With the development of the disease the size and number of papules increases. Their size may exceed 10 cm, In areas with rashes, the skin becomes very sensitive, the hair is maintained. The use of moisturizers do not help, the peeling is not reduced.
Regardless of where psoriasis appears, there are several forms:
- Simple (vulgar) ─ localized on legs, usually on the upper surface of the knee. Papules covered with white scales.
- Seborrheic ─ occurs in people who suffer from seborrhea. Characterized by yellowish papules, scales which are glued to the sebum. They are not inflamed.
- Arthropathy ─ papules are formed in place of the joints, most commonly in the legs and arms. A disease that restricts their mobility.
- Exudative ─ yellowish spots appear on the hands and feet, usually on the outer part of the elbows and knees.
- Pustular ─ accompanied by General malaise, fever. On the painful places often have abscesses.
- Psoriasis of the soles of the feet and palms of the hands ─ occurs mainly in people engaged in physical work. Affects the palms and soles at the same time.
- The inverse ─ papules occur in the large folds of the body (physical). This form of psoriasis is often accompanied by endocrine diseases.
- Tears ─ the formation damage small tears form in the legs and torso. You can appear on the head.
- Nail psoriasis ─ localized on the nail plate, leading to its thickening, deformation. The infected nail is shaped like a bird's beak.
- Psoriatic erythroderma ─ severe form of disease, which is characterized by the gradual progression of psoriasis, the merger of panels. In very advanced cases, which can cover the whole surface of the body. The process along by peeling, swelling, redness, itching, and weakness.
There are three stages of psoriasis:
- The gradual ─ appear bright red rash of small size. For them characteristic of peripheral growth. It is crucial to start the treatment and prevention of skin injuries or diseases, which will be progressed quickly.
- Fixed ─ a new rash to appear and the existing growth stops.
- Regression ─ papules are pale, reduced in size, the peeling stops.
For the diagnosis of psoriasis based on a visual inspection, laboratory investigations and microscopy. The main difference of this disease from other dermatitis ─ autopsy papules separates the film and place the open wound exude drops of blood, as rosa.
Treatment of psoriasis
Psoriasis ─ chronic disease that is difficult to treat. Often relapse (even after long-term remission). The main goal of treatment ─ disappearance of skin rashes. In the process of therapy for each patient needs an individual approach, taking into account the laws of development of the disease, concomitant disease, patterns of recurrence.
The main methods of treatment of psoriasis:
- ointment, lanolin based;
- tar (juniper, pine);
- medicinal oil (naphthalene);
- ointments containing mustard gas;
- hormonal ointments ─ appointed at an advanced stage.
- neuroleptics, tranquilizers;
- anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial preparations,
- stimulants of metabolism, biostimulants;
- immuno-pharmacological means.
- laser therapy;
- selective phototherapy;
- PUVA therapy;
- intravenous therapy;
- magnetic therapy;
- affordable by means of;
- cryogenic therapy.
If you want to select the effective method of treatment, the doctor take into account the condition of the patient, stage of disease, localization of lesions and other factors.
On the human condition, suffer from psoriasis, the positive impact of proper nutrition. The diet should be simple, rich in vitamins and varied. Desirable diet and practice on fasting days (kefir, meat, Apples, vegetables).
Exclude from the diet should be spicy, sweet, fried, smoked dishes. You also can't eat pickled products, mushrooms, ice cream, coffee, sodas.
Psoriasis is not transmitted by contact. However, the causes of its emergence and development are so varied that the risks, which could theoretically be anyone. Therefore, it is important to take care of health, to protect the skin from trauma, burns, dehydration, strengthen the immune system. You should also eat right, not abusing alcohol, medication and avoid stressful situations.