mycosis: Treatment of scalp

It has a wide distribution, often occurs in the form of epidemic outbreaks. The disease can cause all kinds of fungi from the genus Trichophyton and Microsporum.

The clinical picture of fungal infections of the scalp, is determined by the ecology of the pathogen, the way the elements of the fungus in the hair and a strong inflammatory reaction, which takes place in the skin, in response to the introduction of fungus.

Superficial disease of the scalp that usually occurs in children aged 6 to 10 years, at least – from 1 to 5 and 11 to 15 years. Many patients in puberty, the infection has a tendency to self-resolution. If not, then it is so-called chronic diseases of the scalp, seen mainly in adult women.

The source of infection in superficial diseases of the scalp are the sick person and the things that it touches (hats, scarves, combs, brushes, scissors, bedding, etc).

The clinical picture of. On the scalp lesions are formed mild redness and slight peeling of the skin, which is irregular, rounded shape and fuzzy vague borders. The most distinctive symptom is the thinning of the hair on injuries that are not causing hair loss. Some hair break off at the level 2-3 mm above the surface of the skin, and are in the form of cannabis, gray color; the others are cut directly from the mouths of the hair follicles, and have the appearance of "black spots". It was broken so the hair easier to detect the pathogen.

Erythemal-the bubble shape is characterized by the appearance of scattered, not very strongly defined pink plates, slightly above the skin level and is dotted with tiny bubbles. Then there is a slight peeling, and place in small bubbles appear light brown. Hair break at the level of the surface of the skin.

Impetigious form occurs in those cases when the surface disease of the scalp, complicated by secondary infection. The affected skin of the scalp, thus covered with a crust and similar to impetigo.

Chronic "black-spotted" disease of the scalp, is usually a continuation of the surface of the disease in childhood, has not yet reached the age of puberty. Diseases of the scalp has a chronic course, almost exclusively in adult women, which, as a rule, are endogenous predisposing factors: disturbances in the gonads, the thyroid gland, disorders of the autonomic, hypovitaminosis, etc.

The disease appears, for the most part were obliterated, unknowingly to the patient and others. Often is the reason for the examination in adult women is a phenomenon in the family, sick children or grandchildren.


In some areas there are pockets for peeling with fuzzy boundaries and with fragments of hair. Sometimes the disease occurs in the form of small dots with a dense crust on the mouth of the follicle. The most pathognomonic clinical symptom, which are divided into the skin levels of the hair – the so-called "black spots".

Very rarely, superficial diseases of the scalp, becoming inflammatory in nature with the appearance of pustules, infiltrates.

Isolated chronic diseases of the scalp, is very rare. As a rule, the infectious process is common and coupled with the defeat of the scalp, the lesions are observed on the smooth skin of the torso, palms, soles.

Diseases of the scalp, it is celebrated almost exclusively in children, adult patients make up only 10-12 %. Infection of children it occurs most frequently in age from 1 to 13, rarely 15 years. In the period of puberty, in all patients spontaneous recovery occurs.

The disease is highly contagious like children and animals; groups of children (schools, kindergartens, nurseries), which can occur in the form of epidemic outbreaks.

Sources of infection and routes of transmission of infection diseases caused by fungi, such as superficial diseases of the scalp. The main sources of human infection, the zoo mushrooms are diseased cats and dogs.

Clinical manifestations of the disease develop after the incubation period, which lasts on average 4-6 weeks.

Around the hair spot is formed which gradually increases in size to capture large areas of the skin on the scalp. Inflammatory changes in the lesions are mild. Sometimes in the early stage of the disease is the appearance of bubbles with sulphur contents, sometimes covered with crusts.

At the height of its development the disease is characterized by the presence of on the scalp right 1-2 large rounded or oval shape, sharply limited, they have a tendency to combine a foci. The skin around these lesions is slightly swollen and densely covered with gray-white coating (like flour). All the hair in the lesions with a height of 4-6 mm above the skin level and look closely trimmed, there are areas of baldness. On the edge of the damage to the hair is easy to break. Removed the hairs at the base, covered with a loose white cloth, so that they are similar to the glass rod, first immersed in glue and then in fine sand.

Favus is a chronic fungal disease that begins in childhood, and not with a penchant for self-healing, often continuing for adults. Favus is mainly refers to the side of the head, approximately 20 % of cases the process involved the nails and much less – smooth skin.

The main causative agent of Favus is Trichophyton schonleinii.

The source of infection in Favus is sick, rarely sick animals (mouse, cat).

Infection Favus contribute to bad sanitary conditions, poor personal hygiene, poor diet and certain customs, for example, an extended constant wearing of headgear for religious and other reasons.

The clinical picture of Favus is composed of three main symptoms:

  • education on the skin, which is specific for Favus morphological elements rash on the skin, so-called tabs-sculling, which is a pure culture of the fungus;
  • lose the hair that falls out;
  • the formation of scar atrophy and permanent loss of hair on the head.

Sculling formed are seemingly dry formation of bright yellow color, from which the hair. In the long course of the disease without treatment sculling merge, forming a solid yellow crust, baked reminiscent of a honeycomb (hence the name favus, "cell"). sculling is closely attached to the skin, with a lot of problems, remove individual moving parts, leaving a sore bright pink, smooth, slightly moist erosion.

On the scalp, in addition to the typical sculling form, we find a number of Favus. Rare suppurative form of the disease.

The deep disease of the scalp is usually caused by zoophilic trichophytons.

Infection of humans occurs most often through direct contact with sick animals, less often through a variety of objects, for which was impressed with the mushroom hair and scales of affected animals. Less healthy people from infected patients with profound mental illness.

Infiltrations can reach the size of 6-8 cm in diameter, bright red or blue in color and sharply defined border. The number of foci can reach 5-6. Surface infiltration is dotted with a number of deep pustules and hair. Externally unchanged, the hair is often presented in a loose shell due to a deep purulent inflammation.

Sometimes the disease begins with the appearance of vesicles, pustules or skin peeling.


Patients complain of more or less sharp pain in the lesion. Due to the absorption of decomposition products of fungi and lysed tissue comes the poisoning of the patient: there is a feeling of weakness, nausea, headache, body temperature rises, sometimes up to 38-39 °C, develops regional lymphadenitis.

Deep disease is acute, tend to resolve after 2-3 months. after the formation of infiltrates. Healing occurs by scarring, large lesions, which leads to permanent baldness.